Spike's Calculators

Excavation

The shrink percentage of a material is used to calculate the decrease in volume from bank to compacted state. Just as with swell having a load factor, shrink factor has an associated load factor. The load factor can be used to calculate the mass density of the material, lb/yd3 or kg m3, as it changes from bank to compacted state.

Example:

Dry Clay is listed as having a bank mass density of 3220 lb/yd3 with a shrink percentage of -10%

A shrink of -10% has a shrink factor of 0.900 and a load factor of 1.111

bank mass density of 3220 lb/yd3
shrink factor = 0.900
The decrease in volume from bank to compacted state = 1 * 0.009 = 0.9 cubic yards
The change of mass density for one lb/yd3 from bank to compacted = 3220 * 1.111= 3577 lb/yd3

The final result, dry clay as it changes from bank to compacted, has a volume of 0.9 yd3 and a material weight of 3577 lb/yd3.

Shrink and load factors are unit less and work the same for imperial and metric measurements as long as units used are identical.
Since the shrink percentage is calculated from the bank state of the material it does not always have to be a negative % but will be smaller than the swell percentage.

Shrink %

Results:

Shrink Factor #

MaterialSwell/Bulking % Shrink %Source
Andesite 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Andesite 67 33 Church (1981)
Ashes, Coal 33 -50 Church (1981)
Basalt 64 36 (FHWA 2007)
Basalt 64 36 Church (1981)
Basalt 60 35 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Basalt 64 36 Durham University Community
Breccia 33 27 (FHWA 2007)
Breccia 33 27 Church (1981)
Caliche 16 -25 (FHWA 2007)
Caliche 16 -25 Church (1981)
Chalk 50 33 (FHWA 2007)
Chalk 50 33 Church (1981)
Chalk 50 -3 Durham University Community
Cinders 33 -10 (FHWA 2007)
Cinders 33 -10 Church (1981)
Clay (High Pi) 40 -11 Durham University Community
Clay Damp 67 -10 (FHWA 2007)
Clay, Damp 40 -10 Church (1981)
Clay, Damp 40 -10 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clay, Dry 50 -10 (FHWA 2007)
Clay, Dry 35 -10 Church (1981)
Clay, Dry 35 -10 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clayey Silt or Clay 30 -10 BCFS 1995
Clayey Silt Or Clay 30 -9 BCFS 1995
Clean sand 12 -5 BCFS 1995
Common Sand 25 -10 BCFS 1995
Concrete, Cinder 72 33 Church (1981)
Concrete, Cyclopean 72 33 Church (1981)
Concrete, Stone 72 33 Church (1981)
Concrete, Stone 72 33 Church (1981)
Conglomerate 33 -8 Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 25%R 75%E 43 -9 (FHWA 2007)
Decomposed Rock 25%R 75%E 26 -8 Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 50%R 50%E 38 -6 (FHWA 2007)
Decomposed Rock 50%R 50%E 29 -5 Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 75%R 25%E 31 12 (FHWA 2007)
Decomposed Rock 75%R 25%E 25 -12 Church (1981)
Dense Clay 33 to 40 -25 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Diabase 67 33 Church (1981)
Diorite 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Diorite 67 33 Church (1981)
Dolomite 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Dolomite 67 43 Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 25%R 75%E 25 12 Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 50%R 50%E 29 -5 Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 75%R 25%E 26 -8 Church (1981)
Earth, Common 25 -20 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Earth, Loam Damp 40 -4 Church (1981)
Earth, Loam Dry 50 -12 (FHWA 2007)
Earth, Loam Dry 35 -12 Church (1981)
Earth, Loam Wet Mud 0 -20 Church (1981)
Earth, Loam, Damp 43 -4 (FHWA 2007)
Earth, Loam, Wet, Mud 0 -20 (FHWA 2007)
Feldspar 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Feldspar 67 33 Church (1981)
Felsite 67 33 Church (1981)
Gabbro 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Gabbro 67 33 Church (1981)
Gneiss 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Gneiss 67 33 Church (1981)
Gob, Mining Refuse 0 -20 Church (1981)
Granite 72 43 (FHWA 2007)
Granite 72 33 Church (1981)
Granite 72 33 Durham University Community
Granite 72 28 Alaska Dot, 1983
Gravel 5 -3 Durham University Community
Gravel, Average Graduation, Dry 15 -7 Church (1981)
Gravel, Average Graduation, Wet 5 -3 Church (1981)
Gravel, Dry 15 -7 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Dry, Average Graduation 20 -8 (FHWA 2007)
Gravel, Dry, Uniformly Graded 10 -5 (FHWA 2007)
Gravel, Dry, Well Graded 33 -11 (FHWA 2007)
Gravel, Pit Run 8 -4 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Sandy 5 -7 Alaska Dot, 1983
Gravel, Wet 5 -3 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Wet, Average Graduation 10 -2 (FHWA 2007)
Gravel, Wet, Uniformly Graded 5 -5 (FHWA 2007)
Gravel, Wet, Well Graded 16 -1 (FHWA 2007)
Gumbo, Dry 50 -10 (FHWA 2007)
Gumbo, Dry 50 -10 Church (1981)
Gumbo, Wet 67 -10 (FHWA 2007)
Gumbo, Wet 67 -10 Church (1981)
Hard Pan 25 0 BCFS 1995
Hard Pan 25 0 BCFS 1995
Ingeous Rocks 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Limestone 63 36 (FHWA 2007)
Limestone 63 31 Alaska Dot, 1983
Limestone 63 36 Church (1981)
Limestone 63 36 Durham University Community
Loam and Loamy Sand 15 to 20 -17 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Loam, Earth, Damp 40 -4 Church (1981)
Loam, Earth, Dry 35 -12 Church (1981)
Loam, Earth, Wet, Mud 0 -20 Church (1981)
Loess 35 -25 Alaska Dot, 1983
Loess, Dry 50 -10 (FHWA 2007)
Loess, Dry 35 -10 Church (1981)
Loess, Wet 67 -10 (FHWA 2007)
Loess, Wet 40 -10 Church (1981)
Marble 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Marble 67 33 Church (1981)
Marl 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Marl 67 33 Church (1981)
Masonry, Rubble 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Masonry, Rubble 67 33 Church (1981)
Mud 0 -20 Church (1981)
Mud 20 -15 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Pavement, Asphalt 50 0 (FHWA 2007)
Pavement, Asphalt 50 0 Church (1981)
Pavement, Brick 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Pavement, Brick 67 33 Church (1981)
Pavement, Concrete 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Pavement, Concrete 67 33 Church (1981)
Pavement, Macadam 67 0 (FHWA 2007)
Pavement, Macadam 67 0 Church (1981)
Pavement, Wood Block 72 33 Church (1981)
Porphyry 67 33 Church (1981)
Quartz 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Quartz 67 33 Church (1981)
Quartzite 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Quartzite 67 33 Church (1981)
Rhyolite 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Rhyolite 67 33 Church (1981)
Riprap Rock 72 43 (FHWA 2007)
Riprap Rock, Average 72 43 Church (1981)
Rock/Earth 25%R/75%E 26 -8 Alaska Dot, 1983
Rock/Earth 50%R/50%E 29 -5 Alaska Dot, 1983
Rock/Earth 75%R/25%E 25 12 Alaska Dot, 1983
Sand 5 -12 Durham University Community
Sand 5 -11 Alaska Dot, 1983
Sand Or Gravel, Dry, Clean 12 to 14 -12 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand Or Gravel, Wet, Clean 12 to 16 -14 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand, Average Graduation, Dry 11 -11 Church (1981)
Sand, Average Graduation,Wet 5 -11 Church (1981)
Sand, Clean 12 -5 BCFS 1995
Sand, Common 25 -10 BCFS 1995
Sand, Dry 11 -11 (FHWA 2007)
Sand, Dry 10 -10 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Sand, Wet 5 -11 (FHWA 2007)
Sand, Wet 5 -10 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Sandstone 61 34 (FHWA 2007)
Sandstone 61 34 Church (1981)
Sandstone 61 29 Alaska Dot, 1983
Sandstone (Cemented) 61 34 Durham University Community
Schist 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Schist 67 33 Church (1981)
Shale 79 49 (FHWA 2007)
Shale 36 -17 (FHWA 2007)
Shale 50 33 Church (1981)
Shale-Siliceous 40 25 Alaska Dot, 1983
Shales 50 33 Durham University Community
Silt 35 -20 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Silt 35 -17 Alaska Dot, 1983
Silt 36 -17 Church (1981)
Siltstone 61 -11 (FHWA 2007)
Siltstone 45 9 Alaska Dot, 1983
Siltstone 61 -11 Church (1981)
Slag, Furnace 98 65 Church (1981)
Slag, Sand 11 -11 Church (1981)
Slate 77 43 (FHWA 2007)
Slate 77 33 Church (1981)
Syenite 67 33 Church (1981)
Talc 67 43 (FHWA 2007)
Tale 67 33 Church (1981)
Topsoil 56 -26 (FHWA 2007)
Topsoil 56 -26 Church (1981)
Topsoil 55 -25 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Trachyte 67 33 Church (1981)
Trap Rock, Igneous Rocks 67 33 Church (1981)
Trash -50 Church (1981)
Tuff 50 33 (FHWA 2007)
Tuff 50 33 Church (1981)