Spike's Calculators


Swell and Load Factor

Spike VM

The swell factor can be used to calculate the volume increase.
The load factor can be used to calculate the weight of the material per cubic metre/yard from bank to loose state.

Multiply the bank weight by the load factor to get loose weight.

Basalt has a bank mass density of 4950 lb/yd3 with a swell percentage of 67%
A swell of 67% has a swell factor of 1.67 and a load factor of 0.599

bank mass density of 4950 lb/yd3
swell factor = 1.67
load factor = 0.599
The increase of volume from bank to loose = 1 * 1.67 = 1.67 cubic yards
The change of mass density for one lb/yd3 from bank to loose = 4950 * 0.599 = 2965 lb/yd3

The volume of the material changes from bank to loose, the total weight of the material from bank to loose stays the same.
To check the above calculation:
1.67 * 2965 = 4951.6 lb/yd3 The result is equal to the starting bank mass density of 4950 lb/yd3 (difference due to rounding)

Swell Factor is used to calculate the increase of volume for yd3 or m3
Load Factor is used to calculate  change of  mass density,  lb/yd3 or kg/m3

Swell %


Swell Factor #
Load Factor #
Swell and Load Factor
MaterialSwell/Bulking % Source
Ice50 Abel, 1961
Granite 72Alaska Dot, 1983
Gravel, Sandy 5Alaska Dot, 1983
Limestone63Alaska Dot, 1983
Loess35Alaska Dot, 1983
Rock/Earth 25%R/75%E26Alaska Dot, 1983
Rock/Earth 50%R/50%E29Alaska Dot, 1983
Rock/Earth 75%R/25%E25Alaska Dot, 1983
Sand 5 Alaska Dot, 1983
Sandstone 61Alaska Dot, 1983
Shale-Siliceous40Alaska Dot, 1983
Silt 35Alaska Dot, 1983
Siltstone45Alaska Dot, 1983
Basalt60Alberto Munguia Mireles
Cinders30Alberto Munguia Mireles
Clay, Damp40Alberto Munguia Mireles
Clay, Dry35Alberto Munguia Mireles
Decomposed Rock 25% Rock, 75% Earth25Alberto Munguia Mireles
Decomposed Rock 50% Rock, 50% Earth27Alberto Munguia Mireles
Decomposed Rock 75% Rock, 25% Earth40Alberto Munguia Mireles
Dolomite65Alberto Munguia Mireles
Feldspar65Alberto Munguia Mireles
Gneiss65Alberto Munguia Mireles
Granite70Alberto Munguia Mireles
Gravel, Dry15Alberto Munguia Mireles
Gravel, Pit Run8Alberto Munguia Mireles
Gravel, Wet5Alberto Munguia Mireles
Ice70Alberto Munguia Mireles
Limestone60Alberto Munguia Mireles
Mud20Alberto Munguia Mireles
Pavement, Asphalt50Alberto Munguia Mireles
Pavement, Concrete50Alberto Munguia Mireles
Peat30Alberto Munguia Mireles
Quartzite65Alberto Munguia Mireles
Riprap (avg)70Alberto Munguia Mireles
Sand, Dry 10Alberto Munguia Mireles
Sand, Wet 5Alberto Munguia Mireles
Sandstone 60Alberto Munguia Mireles
Silt35Alberto Munguia Mireles
Snow, Dry0Alberto Munguia Mireles
Snow, Wet0Alberto Munguia Mireles
Taconite, Iron Ore60Alberto Munguia Mireles
Topsoil55Alberto Munguia Mireles
Trap Rock65Alberto Munguia Mireles
Glacial Till 10Arup
Basalt60Atkinson 1971
Chalk30Atkinson 1971
Clay, Gravel and Sand, Dry30Atkinson 1971
Clay, Heavy 35Atkinson 1971
Clay, Light 30Atkinson 1971
Granite55Atkinson 1971
Gravel, Dry25Atkinson 1971
Limestone, Hard60Atkinson 1971
Limestone, Soft50Atkinson 1971
Sand and Gravel, Dry15Atkinson 1971
Sand,Dry15Atkinson 1971
Sandstone, Cemented60Atkinson 1971
Sandstone, Porous60Atkinson 1971
Shale 45Atkinson 1971
Chalk80Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Clay 20Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Gravel0Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Rock (Large Pieces)50Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Rock (Small)70Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Sandy Soil, Light 5Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Clayey Silt Or Clay 30BCFS (1995)
Hard Pan 25BCFS (1995)
Sand, Clean 12BCFS (1995)
Sand, Common 25BCFS (1995)
Clayey Sands (SC)10BS 6031 (1981)
Clay, Low Plasticity (CL)30BS 6031 (1981)
Gravel, Silty (GM) 15BS 6031 (1981)
Organic Silts/Clays Of Low Plasticity (OL) 30BS 6031 (1981)
Rocks, Rubble, Soft41BS 6031 (1981)
Sands, Poorly Graded (SP)10BS 6031 (1981)
Sands, Silty (SM)10BS 6031 (1981)
Sands, Well Graded (SW)10BS 6031 (1981)
Silt, Low Plasticity (ML)30BS 6031 (1981)
Silty Gravel (GM) 15BS 6031 (1981)
Gravel, Clayey (GC)10 to 20BS 6031 (1981)
Gravel, Silty (GM)10 to 20BS 6031 (1981)
Inorganic Clays Low Plasticity (CL)20 to 40BS 6031 (1981)
Inorganic Silts, Low Plasticity (ML)20 to 40BS 6031 (1981)
Organic Silts/Clays Low Plasticity (OL)20 to 40BS 6031 (1981)
Rock, Hard Broken 20 to 60BS 6031 (1981)
Rocks Soft, Rubble40BS 6031 (1981)
Sand, Clayey (SC)5 to 15BS 6031 (1981)
Sand, Poorly Graded (SP)5 to 15BS 6031 (1981)
Sand, Silty (SM)5 to 15BS 6031 (1981)
Sand, Well Graded (SW)5 to 15BS 6031 (1981)
Basalt 49Cat Handbook (2016)
Bauxite, Kaolin33Cat Handbook (2016)
Caliche82Cat Handbook (2016)
Carnotite, Uranium Ore 35Cat Handbook (2016)
Cinders 52Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay & Gravel, Dry18Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay & Gravel, Wet 18Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay, Dry 23Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay, Natural Bed22Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay, Wet 25Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Anthracite Washed35 Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Anthracite, Raw 35Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Ash, Bituminous 8Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Bituminous Washed35Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Bituminous, Raw 35Cat Handbook (2016)
Decomposed Rock (25%rock, 75% Earth)25Cat Handbook (2016)
Decomposed Rock (50%rock, 50% Earth)33Cat Handbook (2016)
Decomposed Rock (75%rock, 25% Earth)43Cat Handbook (2016)
Earth, Dry Packed 25Cat Handbook (2016)
Earth, Wet Excavated 27Cat Handbook (2016)
Granite Broken64Cat Handbook (2016)
Gravel, Dry 12Cat Handbook (2016)
Gravel, Pit-Run 12Cat Handbook (2016)
Gravel, Wet (6-50 mm)12Cat Handbook (2016)
Gypsum, Broken75Cat Handbook (2016)
Gypsum, Crushed 75Cat Handbook (2016)
Hematite, Iron Ore, High Grade18Cat Handbook (2016)
Limestone, Broken69Cat Handbook (2016)
Loam Earth 23Cat Handbook (2016)
Magnetite, Iron Ore 18Cat Handbook (2016)
Natural Bed Clay22Cat Handbook (2016)
Pyrite, Iron Ore 18Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand & Clay, Loose 27Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand & Gravel, Dry 12Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand & Gravel, Wet 10Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand, Damp12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand, Damp 12Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand, Dry, Loose 12Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand, Wet 12Cat Handbook (2016)
Sandstone 67Cat Handbook (2016)
Shale 33Cat Handbook (2016)
Slag, Broken67Cat Handbook (2016)
Slag, Furnace82Cat Handbook (2016)
Stone, Crushed 67Cat Handbook (2016)
Taconite72Cat Handbook (2016)
Top Soil 43Cat Handbook (2016)
Trap Rock, Broken 49Cat Handbook (2016)
Sandy Soils (A-3) 25Chopra (1999)
Adobe35Church (1981)
Andesite67Church (1981)
Aragonite, Calcium Ore67Church (1981)
Argentite, Silver Ore67Church (1981)
Asbestos67Church (1981)
Asphaltum67Church (1981)
Barite, Barium Ore67Church (1981)
Bauxite, Aluminum Ore50Church (1981)
Bentonite35Church (1981)
Biotite, Mica Ore67Church (1981)
Borax, 75Church (1981)
Breccia33Church (1981)
Calcite, Calcium Ore67Church (1981)
Caliche16Church (1981)
Carnotite Uranium Ore50Church (1981)
Cassiterite, Tin Ore67Church (1981)
Cerrusite, Lead Ore67Church (1981)
Chalcocite, Copper Ore67Church (1981)
Chalcopyrite, Copper Ore67Church (1981)
Chalk50Church (1981)
Cinders33Church (1981)
Cinnabar, Mercury Ore67Church (1981)
Clay, Damp40Church (1981)
Clay, Dry35Church (1981)
Coal, Anthracite70Church (1981)
Coal, Ashes33Church (1981)
Coal, Bituminous67Church (1981)
Coke0Church (1981)
Colemanite, Borax Ore75Church (1981)
Concrete, Cinder72Church (1981)
Concrete, Cyclopean72Church (1981)
Concrete, Stone72Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 25%R 75%E26Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 50%R 50%E29Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 75%R 25%E25Church (1981)
Diabase67Church (1981)
Diatomaceous Earth, Diatomite62Church (1981)
Diorite67Church (1981)
Dolomite67Church (1981)
Earth Loam, Wet, Mud0Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 25%R 75%E25Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 50%R 50%E29Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 75%R 25%E26Church (1981)
Earth, Loam Damp40Church (1981)
Earth, Loam Dry35Church (1981)
Feldspar67Church (1981)
Felsite67Church (1981)
Fluorite67Church (1981)
Gabbro67Church (1981)
Galena, Lead Ore67Church (1981)
Gneiss67Church (1981)
Gob, Mining Refuse0Church (1981)
Granite72Church (1981)
Gravel, Average Graduation, Dry15Church (1981)
Gumbo, Dry50Church (1981)
Gumbo, Wet67Church (1981)
Gypsum72Church (1981)
Hermatite, Iron Ore75Church (1981)
Hessite, Silver Ore67Church (1981)
Ice67Church (1981)
Ilmenite Titanium Ore69Church (1981)
Kaolinite, Dry50Church (1981)
Kaolinite, Wet67Church (1981)
Lignite65Church (1981)
Limestone63Church (1981)
Limonite, Iron Ore55Church (1981)
Linnaeite, Cobalt Ore67Church (1981)
Loess, Dry35Church (1981)
Loess, Wet40Church (1981)
Magmesite, Magnesium Ore50Church (1981)
Magmetite. Iron Ore54Church (1981)
Marble67Church (1981)
Marl67Church (1981)
Masonry, Rubble67Church (1981)
Millerite, Nickel Ore67Church (1981)
Molybdemite, Molybdenum Ore67Church (1981)
Muscovite, Mica Ore67Church (1981)
Niccolite, Nickel Ore67Church (1981)
Orpiment, Arsenic Ore50Church (1981)
Pavement, Asphalt50Church (1981)
Pavement, Brick67Church (1981)
Pavement, Concrete67Church (1981)
Pavement, Macadam67Church (1981)
Pavement, Wood Block72Church (1981)
Peat33Church (1981)
Phosphorite, Phosphate Rock50Church (1981)
Porphyry67Church (1981)
Potash50Church (1981)
Pumice67Church (1981)
Pyrite, Iron Ore67Church (1981)
Pyrolusite, Manganese Ore50Church (1981)
Quartz67Church (1981)
Quartzite67Church (1981)
Realgar, Arsenic Ore50Church (1981)
Rhyolite67Church (1981)
Riprap Rock, Average72Church (1981)
Rock Salt67Church (1981)
Rock, Ashphalt 62Church (1981)
Sand, Average Graduation, Dry11Church (1981)
Sand, Average Graduation,Wet5Church (1981)
Sandstone61Church (1981)
Scheelite, Tungsten Ore67Church (1981)
Serpentine, Asbestos Ore67Church (1981)
Shale50Church (1981)
Silt 36Church (1981)
Siltstone61Church (1981)
Slag, Furnace98Church (1981)
Slag, Sand11Church (1981)
Smaltite, Cobalt Ore67Church (1981)
Snow, Dry0Church (1981)
Snow, Wet0Church (1981)
Soapstone, Tale Ore67Church (1981)
Sodium Nitrate, Chile Saltpeter50Church (1981)
Stibnite, Antimonite Ore67Church (1981)
Sulphur50Church (1981)
Syenite67Church (1981)
Taconite, Iron Ore60Church (1981)
Tale67Church (1981)
Topsoil56Church (1981)
Trachyte67Church (1981)
Trap Rock, Igneous Rocks67Church (1981)
Witherite, Barium Ore67Church (1981)
Wolframite, Tungsten Ore67Church (1981)
Zinc Blende, Zinc Ore67Church (1981)
Zincite, Zinc Ore67Church (1981)
Basalt 64Church (1981)
Breccia 33Church (1981)
Conglomerate 33Church (1981)
Diabase 67Church (1981)
Diorite 67Church (1981)
Felsite 67Church (1981)
Limestone 63Church (1981)
Marble 67Church (1981)
Quartzite 67Church (1981)
Rhyolite 67Church (1981)
Sandstone 61Church (1981)
Schist 67Church (1981)
Siltstone 61Church (1981)
Slate 77Church (1981)
Tuff 50Church (1981)
Clay, Dry18Deryl Burch (1997)
Clay, Natural 39 Deryl Burch (1997)
Clay, Wet18Deryl Burch (1997)
Earth, Common Dry25Deryl Burch (1997)
Earth,Common Wet25 Deryl Burch (1997)
Limestone68 Deryl Burch (1997)
Sand, Dry and Loose 27Deryl Burch (1997)
Sand, Wet and Packed19Deryl Burch (1997)
Basalt 64Durham University Community
Chalk50Durham University Community
Clay (High Pi)40Durham University Community
Clay (Low Pi)30Durham University Community
Clay and Gravel35Durham University Community
Granite72Durham University Community
Gravel5Durham University Community
Limestone63Durham University Community
Sand5Durham University Community
Sand & Gravel15Durham University Community
Sandstone, Cemented61Durham University Community
Sandstone, Porous60Durham University Community
Shales50Durham University Community
Dense Clay33 to 40Earth Moving Fundamentals
Earth, Common 25Earth Moving Fundamentals
Loam and Loamy Sand15 to 20Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand Or Gravel, Dry, Clean12 to 14Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand Or Gravel, Wet, Clean 12 to 16Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand and Gravel, Dry15Engineering Geology And Construction
Sand, Dry15Engineering Geology And Construction
Clay Light30Engineering Geology And Constuction
Clay, Heavy35Engineering Geology And Constuction
Clay,Gravel and Sand, Dry30Engineering Geology And Constuction
Gravel, Dry25Engineering Geology And Constuction
Basalt75 - 80Engineering Tool Box
Clay20 - 40Engineering Tool Box
Dolomite50 - 60Engineering Tool Box
Earth20 - 30Engineering Tool Box
Gneiss75 - 80Engineering Tool Box
Granite75 - 80Engineering Tool Box
Gravel, Dry20 - 30Engineering Tool Box
Gravel, Wet20 - 30Engineering Tool Box
Gravel, Wet With Clay50 - 60Engineering Tool Box
Limestone75 - 80Engineering Tool Box
Loam15 - 25Engineering Tool Box
Quartz75 - 80Engineering Tool Box
Rock40 - 80Engineering Tool Box
Sand, Dry20 - 30Engineering Tool Box
Sand, Wet20 - 30Engineering Tool Box
Sandstone75 - 80Engineering Tool Box
Slate85 - 90Engineering Tool Box
Soil20 - 30Engineering Tool Box
Blasted Rock40 to 60Estimating Building Cost
Clay 20 to 35Estimating Building Cost
Loam, Sandy 10 to 20Estimating Building Cost
Sand and Gravel10 to 18Estimating Building Cost
Topsoil25 to 35Estimating Building Cost
Andesite67FHWA 2007
Basalt64FHWA 2007
Bentonite35FHWA 2007
Breccia33FHWA 2007
Calcite-Calcium67FHWA 2007
Caliche16FHWA 2007
Chalk50FHWA 2007
Cinders33FHWA 2007
Clay, Damp67FHWA 2007
Clay, Dry50FHWA 2007
Conglomerate33FHWA 2007
Decomposed Rock 25%R 75%E43FHWA 2007
Decomposed Rock 50%R 50%E38FHWA 2007
Decomposed Rock 75%R 25%E31FHWA 2007
Diatomaceous Earth62FHWA 2007
Diorite67FHWA 2007
Dolomite67FHWA 2007
Earth, Loam Dry50FHWA 2007
Earth, Loam, Damp43FHWA 2007
Earth, Loam, Wet, Mud0FHWA 2007
Feldspar67FHWA 2007
Gabbro67FHWA 2007
Gneiss67FHWA 2007
Granite72FHWA 2007
Gravel, Dry, Average Graduation20FHWA 2007
Gravel, Dry, Uniformly Graded10FHWA 2007
Gravel, Dry, Well Graded33FHWA 2007
Gravel, Wet, Average Graduation10FHWA 2007
Gravel, Wet, Uniformly Graded5FHWA 2007
Gravel, Wet, Well Graded16FHWA 2007
Gumbo, Dry50FHWA 2007
Gumbo, Wet67FHWA 2007
Ingeous Rocks67FHWA 2007
Kaolinite, Dry50FHWA 2007
Kaolinite, Wet67FHWA 2007
Limestone63FHWA 2007
Loess, Dry50FHWA 2007
Loess, Wet67FHWA 2007
Marble67FHWA 2007
Marl67FHWA 2007
Masonry, Rubble67FHWA 2007
Mica67FHWA 2007
Pavement, Asphalt50FHWA 2007
Pavement, Brick67FHWA 2007
Pavement, Concrete67FHWA 2007
Pavement, Macadam67FHWA 2007
Peat33FHWA 2007
Pumice67FHWA 2007
Quartz67FHWA 2007
Quartzite67FHWA 2007
Rhyolite67FHWA 2007
Riprap Rock72FHWA 2007
Sand, Dry11FHWA 2007
Sand, Wet5FHWA 2007
Sandstone61FHWA 2007
Schist67FHWA 2007
Shale36FHWA 2007
Shale79FHWA 2007
Siltstone61FHWA 2007
Slate77FHWA 2007
Talc67FHWA 2007
Topsoil56FHWA 2007
Tuff50FHWA 2007
Andesite67FLH (1996)
Asphalt Pavement 49FLH (1996)
Basalt64FLH (1996)
Bentonite 35FLH (1996)
Breccia 33FLH (1996)
Brick Pavement 67FLH (1996)
Calcite-Calcium 67FLH (1996)
Caliche 16FLH (1996)
Chalk 49FLH (1996)
Cinders33FLH (1996)
Clay, Damp 67FLH (1996)
Clay, Dry 49FLH (1996)
Concrete, Pavement 67FLH (1996)
Conglomerate 33FLH (1996)
Decomposed Rock, 25% R. 75% E. 43FLH (1996)
Decomposed Rock, 50% R. 50% E. 39FLH (1996)
Decomposed Rock, 75% R. 25% E. 32FLH (1996)
Diatomaceous Earth 61FLH (1996)
Diorite 67FLH (1996)
Dolomite 67FLH (1996)
Feldspar 67FLH (1996)
Gabbro 67FLH (1996)
Gneiss 67FLH (1996)
Granite 72FLH (1996)
Gumbo, Dry 49FLH (1996)
Gumbo, Wet 67FLH (1996)
Gypsum 72FLH (1996)
Igneous Rocks 67FLH (1996)
Kaolinite, Dry 49FLH (1996)
Kaolinite, Wet 67FLH (1996)
Limestone 64FLH (1996)
Loam, Damp Earth43FLH (1996)
Loam, Dry Earth49FLH (1996)
Loam, Wet, Mud Earth0FLH (1996)
Loess, Dry 49FLH (1996)
Loess, Wet 67FLH (1996)
Macadam Pavement 67FLH (1996)
Marble 67FLH (1996)
Marl 67FLH (1996)
Masonry, Rubble 67FLH (1996)
Mica 67FLH (1996)
Peat 33FLH (1996)
Pumice67FLH (1996)
Quartz 67FLH (1996)
Quartzite67FLH (1996)
Rhyolite 67FLH (1996)
Riprap Rock72FLH (1996)
Sand, Dry 11FLH (1996)
Sand, Wet5FLH (1996)
Sandstone 61FLH (1996)
Schist 67FLH (1996)
Shale 79FLH (1996)
Silt 35FLH (1996)
Slate79FLH (1996)
Talc 67FLH (1996)
Top Soil56FLH (1996)
Tuff 49FLH (1996)
Clay20 to 40Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Clay. Organic20 to 40Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Gravelly Clays20 to 40Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Gravels10 to 15Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Rocks Metamorphic 30 to 60Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Rocks, Igneous50 to 80Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Rocks, Sedimentary40 to 70Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Rocks, Soft30 to 40Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Sand, Uniform 10 to 15Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Sand, well graded (SW)10 to 15Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Topsoil/Peat25 to 45Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Bauxite, Run Of Mine33Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay and Gravel Dry41Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay, Compact, Natural Bed33Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay, Dense, Tough Or Wet34Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay, Dry25Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay, Light, Kaolin30Hartman, H.L., 1982
Coal, Anthracite35Hartman, H.L., 1982
Coal, Bituminous35 to 40Hartman, H.L., 1982
Earth, Rock31Hartman, H.L., 1982
Gneiss75Hartman, H.L., 1982
Granite 50 to 86Hartman, H.L., 1982
Granite and Porphyry 75Hartman, H.L., 1982
Gravel, Dry 12 to 98Hartman, H.L., 1982
Gravel, Wet 10 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Gypsum 50 to 63Hartman, H.L., 1982
Iron Ore, Hematite 67 to 122Hartman, H.L., 1982
Iron Ore, Taconite 40Hartman, H.L., 1982
Kaolin 30Hartman, H.L., 1982
Limestone 65Hartman, H.L., 1982
Limestone, Blasted 68 to 75Hartman, H.L., 1982
Limestone, Marble 68 to 75Hartman, H.L., 1982
Mud, Dry 21 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Mud, Wet 20 to 21Hartman, H.L., 1982
Rock, Stone, Crushed 35 to 36Hartman, H.L., 1982
Rock, Well Blasted 49Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sand and Gravel, Dry 14 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sand and Gravel, Wet 15Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sand, Dry 10 to 16Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sand, Moist 15 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sandstone 39 to 50Hartman, H.L., 1982
Shale, Riprap 33 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Slag 24 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Slate 29 to 30Hartman, H.L., 1982
Stone, Crushed 35 to 36Hartman, H.L., 1982
Trap Rock 49 to 52Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay 30Hashemite University
Earth, Common 25Hashemite University
Rock, Blasted50Hashemite University
Sand and Gravel, Dry12Hashemite University
Dense Clay20 to 35Helton (2007)
Gravel 10 to 19Helton (2007)
Loam15 to 25Helton (2007)
Rock, Solid 42 to 61 Helton (2007)
Chalk30-40Horner, 1988
Cohesive Soil20-40Horner, 1988
Granular Soil10-15Horner, 1988
Igneous Rocks50-80Horner, 1988
Metamorphic Rocks 30-65Horner, 1988
Peat25-45Horner, 1988
Sedimentary Rocks40-75Horner, 1988
Topsoil25-45Horner, 1988
Igneous Rocks50 to 80 Horner, 1988
Metamorphic 30 to 65 Horner, 1988
Clay's 30Look(2007)
Gravelly Clay's 30Look(2007)
Gravels 12Look(2007)
Igneous Rocks61Look(2007)
Metamorphic Rocks 43Look(2007)
Organic Clays30Look(2007)
Peat/Topsoil 33Look(2007)
Rocks, Soft 35Look(2007)
Sand, Uniform 12Look(2007)
Sand, Well Graded (SW)12Look(2007)
Sedimentary Rocks54Look(2007)
Coal 30 to 35Lopez Jimeno Et Al. 1995
Copper Ore50 to 60Lopez Jimeno Et Al. 1995
Iron, Ore40 to 60Lopez Jimeno Et Al. 1995
Clay, Boulder45Methvin
Rock 60Methvin
Clay30Nunally Sw 1998
Earth, Common 25Nunally Sw 1998
Rock , Blasted50Nunally Sw 1998
Sand and Gravel 12Nunally Sw 1998
Alluvium10 to 15Nz Transport Agency
Dune Sand0 to 10Nz Transport Agency
Dolomite 66Peele (1961)
Gneiss 75Peele (1961)
Granite and Porphyry76Peele (1961)
Greenstone & Trap 81Peele (1961)
Limestone 75Peele (1961)
Quartz 76Peele (1961)
Sandstone 79Peele (1961)
Slate 84Peele (1961)
Clay, Dry35Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Clay, Wet 35Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Earth and Gravel20Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Earth, Dry25Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Earth, Wet 25Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Gravel, Dry 12Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Gravel, Wet 14Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Limestone59Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Rock, Well Blasted 59Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Sand, Dry15Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Sand, Wet 15Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Shale 41Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Clay and Gravel, Dry40Projectengineer
Clay and Gravel, Wet40Projectengineer
Clay, Dry40Projectengineer
Clay, Wet40Projectengineer
Coal, Anthracite35Projectengineer
Coal, Bituminous35Projectengineer
Earth, Loam, Dry25Projectengineer
Earth, Loam, Wet25Projectengineer
Gravel, Dry12Projectengineer
Gravel, Wet12Projectengineer
Rock, Well Blasted65Projectengineer
Sand, Dry12Projectengineer
Sand, Wet12Projectengineer
Shale and Soft Rock65Projectengineer
Trap Rock65Projectengineer
Basalt60Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clay, Damp40Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clay, Dry35Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Dry15Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Pit Run8Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Wet5Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Mud20Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Sand, Dry10Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Sand, Wet5Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Silt35Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Topsoil55Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clay, Heavy (CH)45Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Clay, Sandy (SC)20Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Clay, Sandy and Clayey (GW)15Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Clay, Silty (CL)30Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Sand, Uniformly Graded (SP)10Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Sand, Well Graded (SW)15Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Sandstone, Highly Weathered30Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Sandstone, Un-weathered50Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Shale, Unweathered35Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Basalt50 to 80Soil Mechanics
Chalk30 to 50Soil Mechanics
Clay20 to 30Soil Mechanics
Coal30 to 40Soil Mechanics
Gneiss50 to 80Soil Mechanics
Granite50 to 80Soil Mechanics
Gravel12 to 18Soil Mechanics
Limestone50 to 70Soil Mechanics
Mudstone30 to 50Soil Mechanics
Peat30 to 40Soil Mechanics
Sand10 to 15Soil Mechanics
Sandstone40 to 70Soil Mechanics
Shale30 to 50Soil Mechanics
Topsoil30 to 40Soil Mechanics
Clay, Soft30-40Spon's
Clay, Stiff10-20Spon's
Rock, Unweathered50-60Spon's
Rock, Weathered30-40Spon's
Vegetable Soil and Loam25-30Spon's
Basalt19Surface Mining
Bauxite Ore12Surface Mining
Caliche19Surface Mining
Clay, Light8Surface Mining
Coal19Surface Mining
Copper Ore14Surface Mining
Dolomite20Surface Mining
Earth, Dry8Surface Mining
Granite22Surface Mining
Gravel, Dry5Surface Mining
Gypsum27Surface Mining
Iron Ore (Hematite)6Surface Mining
Iron Ore (Magnetite)6Surface Mining
Iron Ore (Taconite)27Surface Mining
Limestone23Surface Mining
Quartzite19Surface Mining
Rock Salt19Surface Mining
Sand, Dry5Surface Mining
Sandstone20Surface Mining
Shale12Surface Mining
Slate11Surface Mining
Trap Rock19Surface Mining
Mudstone, Silt30Sweby, G.
Sandstone, Coarse40Sweby, G.
Sandstone, Fine50Sweby, G.
Sandstone, Shaley 30Sweby, G.
Shale20Sweby, G.
Shale, Carbonaceous 15Sweby, G.
Shale, Sandy 25Sweby, G.
Clay 40Tafe Nsw
Clay + Gravel18Tafe Nsw
Clay Loam30Tafe Nsw
Gravel ( 6-50mm)12Tafe Nsw
Limestone67Tafe Nsw
Loam25Tafe Nsw
Sand12Tafe Nsw
Sandstone54Tafe Nsw
Sandy Loam20Tafe Nsw
Bedrock 30 Tetra Tech
Clay, Dense 20 to 35University Of Jordan
Loam15 to 25University Of Jordan
Rock, Solid40 to 70University Of Jordan
Sand and Gravel 10 to 18University Of Jordan
Clay and Gravel, Dry17University Of Wisconsin
Clay and Gravel, Wet17University Of Wisconsin
Clay, Dry26University Of Wisconsin
Clay, Wet32University Of Wisconsin
Earth, Dry 29University Of Wisconsin
Earth, Moist28University Of Wisconsin
Earth, Wet23University Of Wisconsin
Gravel, Dry17University Of Wisconsin
Gravel, Wet13University Of Wisconsin
Sand and Gravel, Dry12University Of Wisconsin
Sand and Gravel, Wet10University Of Wisconsin
Sand, Dry 12University Of Wisconsin
Sand, Wet 13University Of Wisconsin
Cinders40 to 55USAES 1994
Clay, Dry40USAES 1994
Clay, Wet40USAES 1994
Earth (Loam Silt) Dry15 to 35USAES 1994
Earth (Loam Silt) Wet25USAES 1994
Gravel, Dry10 to 15USAES 1994
Gravel, Wet10 to 15USAES 1994
Sand, Dry 10 to 15USAES 1994
Sand, Wet 10 to 15USAES 1994
Shale (Soft Rock)65USAES 1994
Trap Rock50USAES 1994
Clay - Dry 40Wikiengineer
Clay - Wet 40Wikiengineer
Clay and Gravel - Dry 40Wikiengineer
Clay and Gravel - Wet 40Wikiengineer
Coal, Anthracite 35Wikiengineer
Coal, Bituminous 35Wikiengineer
Earth - Dry 25Wikiengineer
Earth - Wet 25Wikiengineer
Gravel - Dry 12Wikiengineer
Gravel - Wet 12Wikiengineer
Gypsum 74Wikiengineer
Hardpan 50Wikiengineer
Limestone 67Wikiengineer
Rock - Blasted 65Wikiengineer
Sand - Dry 12Wikiengineer
Sand - Wet 12Wikiengineer
Sandstone 54Wikiengineer
Shale and Soft Rock 65Wikiengineer
Slate 65Wikiengineer
Trap Rock 65Wikiengineer
Basalt64Wilkinson (1997)
Chalk50Wilkinson (1997)
Clay and Gravel35Wilkinson (1997)
Clay, (High Plasticity Index) 40Wilkinson (1997)
Clay, (Low Plasticity Index) 30Wilkinson (1997)
Granite72Wilkinson (1997)
Gravel5Wilkinson (1997)
Limestone63Wilkinson (1997)
Sand5Wilkinson (1997)
Sand & Gravel15Wilkinson (1997)
Sandstone, Cemented61Wilkinson (1997)
Sandstone, Porous60Wilkinson (1997)
Shales50Wilkinson (1997)
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Excavation Calculators

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