# Bulking/Swell Factors for Various Excavated/Mined Materials

The swell factor expressed in percentage is the amount of volume increase from Bank volume (undisturbed, in place state) to Loose volume (disturbed, excavated state) of the material due to voids (air pockets) added to the material after excavation.

Excavated area is 200 metres long 20 metres wide and 2 metres deep with a listed swell of 40% for the material.

The bank volume = 200 * 20 * 2 = 8000 m3 -> 8000 Bank cubic metres (BCM)
Loose volume = 8000 * 1.4 = 11200 m3 -> 11200 Loose cubic metres(LCM)

The same excavation in feet;
Excavated area is 200 feet long 20 feet wide and 2 feet deep with a listed swell of 40% for the material.
Bank volume = 200 * 20 * 2 = 8000 ft3
Convert 8000 cu/ft to cub/yards =8000/27 = 296 yd3 Bank Cubic Yards (BCY)
Loose volume = 296 * 1.4 = 414 yd3 Loose Cubic Yards (LCY)

(Calculation are based on the material being of similar consistency. To get a more accurate estimate of volume increase from bank to loose state you would require the services of a Geo Tech Engineer)

Bulking factors of soil and rocks collected from various online sources.

MaterialSwell/Bulking % Source
Ice 50 Abel, 1961
Gravel, Sandy 5 Alaska Dot, 1983
Rock/Earth 25%R/75%E 26 Alaska Dot, 1983
Rock/Earth 50%R/50%E 29 Alaska Dot, 1983
Rock/Earth 75%R/25%E 25 Alaska Dot, 1983
Basalt 60 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Cinders 30 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Clay, Damp 40 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Clay, Dry 35 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Decomposed Rock 25% Rock, 75% Earth 25 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Decomposed Rock 50% Rock, 50% Earth 27 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Decomposed Rock 75% Rock, 25% Earth 40 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Dolomite 65 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Feldspar 65 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Gneiss 65 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Granite 70 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Gravel, Dry 15 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Gravel, Pit Run 8 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Gravel, Wet 5 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Ice 70 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Limestone 60 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Mud 20 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Pavement, Asphalt 50 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Pavement, Concrete 50 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Peat 30 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Quartzite 65 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Riprap (avg) 70 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Sand, Dry 10 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Sand, Wet 5 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Sandstone 60 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Silt 35 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Snow, Dry 0 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Snow, Wet 0 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Taconite, Iron Ore 60 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Topsoil 55 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Trap Rock 65 Alberto Munguia Mireles
Glacial Till 10 Arup
Mudstone/Siltstone 15 Arup
Sandstone 20 Arup
Subsoil 10 Arup
Topsoil 5 Arup
Basalt 60 Atkinson 1971
Chalk 30 Atkinson 1971
Clay, Gravel and Sand, Dry 30 Atkinson 1971
Clay, Heavy 35 Atkinson 1971
Clay, Light 30 Atkinson 1971
Granite 55 Atkinson 1971
Gravel, Dry 25 Atkinson 1971
Limestone, Hard 60 Atkinson 1971
Limestone, Soft 50 Atkinson 1971
Sand and Gravel, Dry 15 Atkinson 1971
Sand,Dry 15 Atkinson 1971
Sandstone, Cemented 60 Atkinson 1971
Sandstone, Porous 60 Atkinson 1971
Shale 45 Atkinson 1971
Chalk 80 Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Clay 20 Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Gravel 0 Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Rock (Large Pieces) 50 Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Rock (Small) 70 Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Sandy Soil, Light 5 Bannister And Raymond, 1998
Clayey Silt Or Clay 30 BCFS (1995)
Hard Pan 25 BCFS (1995)
Sand, Clean 12 BCFS (1995)
Sand, Common 25 BCFS (1995)
Clayey Sands (SC) 10 BS 6031 (1981)
Clay, Low Plasticity (CL) 30 BS 6031 (1981)
Gravel, Silty (GM) 15 BS 6031 (1981)
Organic Silts/Clays Of Low Plasticity (OL) 30 BS 6031 (1981)
Rocks, Rubble, Soft 41 BS 6031 (1981)
Sands, Poorly Graded (SP) 10 BS 6031 (1981)
Sands, Silty (SM) 10 BS 6031 (1981)
Sands, Well Graded (SW) 10 BS 6031 (1981)
Silt, Low Plasticity (ML) 30 BS 6031 (1981)
Silty Gravel (GM) 15 BS 6031 (1981)
Gravel, Clayey (GC) 10 to 20 BS 6031 (1981)
Gravel, Silty (GM) 10 to 20 BS 6031 (1981)
Inorganic Clays Low Plasticity (CL) 20 to 40 BS 6031 (1981)
Inorganic Silts, Low Plasticity (ML) 20 to 40 BS 6031 (1981)
Organic Silts/Clays Low Plasticity (OL) 20 to 40 BS 6031 (1981)
Rock, Hard Broken 20 to 60 BS 6031 (1981)
Rocks Soft, Rubble 40 BS 6031 (1981)
Sand, Clayey (SC) 5 to 15 BS 6031 (1981)
Sand, Poorly Graded (SP) 5 to 15 BS 6031 (1981)
Sand, Silty (SM) 5 to 15 BS 6031 (1981)
Sand, Well Graded (SW) 5 to 15 BS 6031 (1981)
Basalt 49 Cat Handbook (2016)
Bauxite, Kaolin 33 Cat Handbook (2016)
Caliche 82 Cat Handbook (2016)
Carnotite, Uranium Ore 35 Cat Handbook (2016)
Cinders 52 Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay & Gravel, Dry 18 Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay & Gravel, Wet 18 Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay, Dry 23 Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay, Natural Bed 22 Cat Handbook (2016)
Clay, Wet 25 Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Anthracite Washed 35 Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Anthracite, Raw 35 Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Ash, Bituminous 8 Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Bituminous Washed 35 Cat Handbook (2016)
Coal, Bituminous, Raw 35 Cat Handbook (2016)
Decomposed Rock (25%rock, 75% Earth) 25 Cat Handbook (2016)
Decomposed Rock (50%rock, 50% Earth) 33 Cat Handbook (2016)
Decomposed Rock (75%rock, 25% Earth) 43 Cat Handbook (2016)
Earth, Dry Packed 25 Cat Handbook (2016)
Earth, Wet Excavated 27 Cat Handbook (2016)
Granite – Broken 64 Cat Handbook (2016)
Gravel, Dry 12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Gravel, Pit-Run 12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Gravel, Wet (6-50 mm) 12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Gypsum, Broken 75 Cat Handbook (2016)
Gypsum, Crushed 75 Cat Handbook (2016)
Hematite, Iron Ore, High Grade 18 Cat Handbook (2016)
Limestone, Broken 69 Cat Handbook (2016)
Loam Earth 23 Cat Handbook (2016)
Magnetite, Iron Ore 18 Cat Handbook (2016)
Natural Bed Clay 22 Cat Handbook (2016)
Pyrite, Iron Ore 18 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand & Clay, Loose 27 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand & Gravel, Dry 12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand & Gravel, Wet 10 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand, Damp 12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand, Damp 12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand, Dry, Loose 12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sand, Wet 12 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sandstone 67 Cat Handbook (2016)
Shale 33 Cat Handbook (2016)
Slag, Broken 67 Cat Handbook (2016)
Slag, Furnace 82 Cat Handbook (2016)
Stone, Crushed 67 Cat Handbook (2016)
Taconite 72 Cat Handbook (2016)
Top Soil 43 Cat Handbook (2016)
Trap Rock, Broken 49 Cat Handbook (2016)
Sandy Soils (A-3) 25 Chopra (1999)
Andesite 67 Church (1981)
Aragonite, Calcium Ore 67 Church (1981)
Argentite, Silver Ore 67 Church (1981)
Asbestos 67 Church (1981)
Asphaltum 67 Church (1981)
Barite, Barium Ore 67 Church (1981)
Bauxite, Aluminum Ore 50 Church (1981)
Bentonite 35 Church (1981)
Biotite, Mica Ore 67 Church (1981)
Borax, 75 Church (1981)
Breccia 33 Church (1981)
Calcite, Calcium Ore 67 Church (1981)
Caliche 16 Church (1981)
Carnotite Uranium Ore 50 Church (1981)
Cassiterite, Tin Ore 67 Church (1981)
Cerrusite, Lead Ore 67 Church (1981)
Chalcocite, Copper Ore 67 Church (1981)
Chalcopyrite, Copper Ore 67 Church (1981)
Chalk 50 Church (1981)
Cinders 33 Church (1981)
Cinnabar, Mercury Ore 67 Church (1981)
Clay, Damp 40 Church (1981)
Clay, Dry 35 Church (1981)
Coal, Anthracite 70 Church (1981)
Coal, Ashes 33 Church (1981)
Coal, Bituminous 67 Church (1981)
Coke 0 Church (1981)
Colemanite, Borax Ore 75 Church (1981)
Concrete, Cinder 72 Church (1981)
Concrete, Cyclopean 72 Church (1981)
Concrete, Stone 72 Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 25%R 75%E 26 Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 50%R 50%E 29 Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 75%R 25%E 25 Church (1981)
Diabase 67 Church (1981)
Diatomaceous Earth, Diatomite 62 Church (1981)
Diorite 67 Church (1981)
Dolomite 67 Church (1981)
Earth Loam, Wet, Mud 0 Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 25%R 75%E 25 Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 50%R 50%E 29 Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 75%R 25%E 26 Church (1981)
Earth, Loam Damp 40 Church (1981)
Earth, Loam Dry 35 Church (1981)
Feldspar 67 Church (1981)
Felsite 67 Church (1981)
Fluorite 67 Church (1981)
Gabbro 67 Church (1981)
Galena, Lead Ore 67 Church (1981)
Gneiss 67 Church (1981)
Gob, Mining Refuse 0 Church (1981)
Granite 72 Church (1981)
Gravel, Average Graduation, Dry 15 Church (1981)
Gumbo, Dry 50 Church (1981)
Gumbo, Wet 67 Church (1981)
Gypsum 72 Church (1981)
Hermatite, Iron Ore 75 Church (1981)
Hessite, Silver Ore 67 Church (1981)
Ice 67 Church (1981)
Ilmenite Titanium Ore 69 Church (1981)
Kaolinite, Dry 50 Church (1981)
Kaolinite, Wet 67 Church (1981)
Lignite 65 Church (1981)
Limestone 63 Church (1981)
Limonite, Iron Ore 55 Church (1981)
Linnaeite, Cobalt Ore 67 Church (1981)
Loess, Dry 35 Church (1981)
Loess, Wet 40 Church (1981)
Magmesite, Magnesium Ore 50 Church (1981)
Magmetite. Iron Ore 54 Church (1981)
Marble 67 Church (1981)
Marl 67 Church (1981)
Masonry, Rubble 67 Church (1981)
Millerite, Nickel Ore 67 Church (1981)
Molybdemite, Molybdenum Ore 67 Church (1981)
Muscovite, Mica Ore 67 Church (1981)
Niccolite, Nickel Ore 67 Church (1981)
Orpiment, Arsenic Ore 50 Church (1981)
Pavement, Asphalt 50 Church (1981)
Pavement, Brick 67 Church (1981)
Pavement, Concrete 67 Church (1981)
Pavement, Wood Block 72 Church (1981)
Peat 33 Church (1981)
Phosphorite, Phosphate Rock 50 Church (1981)
Porphyry 67 Church (1981)
Potash 50 Church (1981)
Pumice 67 Church (1981)
Pyrite, Iron Ore 67 Church (1981)
Pyrolusite, Manganese Ore 50 Church (1981)
Quartz 67 Church (1981)
Quartzite 67 Church (1981)
Realgar, Arsenic Ore 50 Church (1981)
Rhyolite 67 Church (1981)
Riprap Rock, Average 72 Church (1981)
Rock Salt 67 Church (1981)
Rock, Ashphalt 62 Church (1981)
Sand, Average Graduation, Dry 11 Church (1981)
Sand, Average Graduation,Wet 5 Church (1981)
Sandstone 61 Church (1981)
Scheelite, Tungsten Ore 67 Church (1981)
Serpentine, Asbestos Ore 67 Church (1981)
Shale 50 Church (1981)
Silt 36 Church (1981)
Siltstone 61 Church (1981)
Slag, Furnace 98 Church (1981)
Slag, Sand 11 Church (1981)
Smaltite, Cobalt Ore 67 Church (1981)
Snow, Dry 0 Church (1981)
Snow, Wet 0 Church (1981)
Soapstone, Tale Ore 67 Church (1981)
Sodium Nitrate, Chile Saltpeter 50 Church (1981)
Stibnite, Antimonite Ore 67 Church (1981)
Sulphur 50 Church (1981)
Syenite 67 Church (1981)
Taconite, Iron Ore 60 Church (1981)
Tale 67 Church (1981)
Topsoil 56 Church (1981)
Trachyte 67 Church (1981)
Trap Rock, Igneous Rocks 67 Church (1981)
Witherite, Barium Ore 67 Church (1981)
Wolframite, Tungsten Ore 67 Church (1981)
Zinc Blende, Zinc Ore 67 Church (1981)
Zincite, Zinc Ore 67 Church (1981)
Basalt 64 Church (1981)
Breccia 33 Church (1981)
Conglomerate 33 Church (1981)
Diabase 67 Church (1981)
Diorite 67 Church (1981)
Felsite 67 Church (1981)
Limestone 63 Church (1981)
Marble 67 Church (1981)
Quartzite 67 Church (1981)
Rhyolite 67 Church (1981)
Sandstone 61 Church (1981)
Schist 67 Church (1981)
Siltstone 61 Church (1981)
Slate 77 Church (1981)
Tuff 50 Church (1981)
Clay, Dry 18 Deryl Burch (1997)
Clay, Natural 39 Deryl Burch (1997)
Clay, Wet 18 Deryl Burch (1997)
Earth, Common Dry 25 Deryl Burch (1997)
Earth,Common Wet 25 Deryl Burch (1997)
Limestone 68 Deryl Burch (1997)
Sand, Dry and Loose 27 Deryl Burch (1997)
Sand, Wet and Packed 19 Deryl Burch (1997)
Basalt 64 Durham University Community
Chalk 50 Durham University Community
Clay (High Pi) 40 Durham University Community
Clay (Low Pi) 30 Durham University Community
Clay and Gravel 35 Durham University Community
Granite 72 Durham University Community
Gravel 5 Durham University Community
Limestone 63 Durham University Community
Sand 5 Durham University Community
Sand & Gravel 15 Durham University Community
Sandstone, Cemented 61 Durham University Community
Sandstone, Porous 60 Durham University Community
Shales 50 Durham University Community
Dense Clay 33 to 40 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Earth, Common 25 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Loam and Loamy Sand 15 to 20 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand Or Gravel, Dry, Clean 12 to 14 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand Or Gravel, Wet, Clean 12 to 16 Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand and Gravel, Dry 15 Engineering Geology And Construction
Sand, Dry 15 Engineering Geology And Construction
Clay Light 30 Engineering Geology And Constuction
Clay, Heavy 35 Engineering Geology And Constuction
Clay,Gravel and Sand, Dry 30 Engineering Geology And Constuction
Gravel, Dry 25 Engineering Geology And Constuction
Basalt 75 - 80 Engineering Tool Box
Clay 20 - 40 Engineering Tool Box
Dolomite 50 - 60 Engineering Tool Box
Earth 20 - 30 Engineering Tool Box
Gneiss 75 - 80 Engineering Tool Box
Granite 75 - 80 Engineering Tool Box
Gravel, Dry 20 - 30 Engineering Tool Box
Gravel, Wet 20 - 30 Engineering Tool Box
Gravel, Wet With Clay 50 - 60 Engineering Tool Box
Limestone 75 - 80 Engineering Tool Box
Loam 15 - 25 Engineering Tool Box
Quartz 75 - 80 Engineering Tool Box
Rock 40 - 80 Engineering Tool Box
Sand, Dry 20 - 30 Engineering Tool Box
Sand, Wet 20 - 30 Engineering Tool Box
Sandstone 75 - 80 Engineering Tool Box
Slate 85 - 90 Engineering Tool Box
Soil 20 - 30 Engineering Tool Box
Blasted Rock 40 to 60 Estimating Building Cost
Clay 20 to 35 Estimating Building Cost
Loam, Sandy 10 to 20 Estimating Building Cost
Sand and Gravel 10 to 18 Estimating Building Cost
Topsoil 25 to 35 Estimating Building Cost
Andesite 67 FHWA 2007
Basalt 64 FHWA 2007
Bentonite 35 FHWA 2007
Breccia 33 FHWA 2007
Calcite-Calcium 67 FHWA 2007
Caliche 16 FHWA 2007
Chalk 50 FHWA 2007
Cinders 33 FHWA 2007
Clay, Damp 67 FHWA 2007
Clay, Dry 50 FHWA 2007
Conglomerate 33 FHWA 2007
Decomposed Rock 25%R 75%E 43 FHWA 2007
Decomposed Rock 50%R 50%E 38 FHWA 2007
Decomposed Rock 75%R 25%E 31 FHWA 2007
Diatomaceous Earth 62 FHWA 2007
Diorite 67 FHWA 2007
Dolomite 67 FHWA 2007
Earth, Loam Dry 50 FHWA 2007
Earth, Loam, Damp 43 FHWA 2007
Earth, Loam, Wet, Mud 0 FHWA 2007
Feldspar 67 FHWA 2007
Gabbro 67 FHWA 2007
Gneiss 67 FHWA 2007
Granite 72 FHWA 2007
Gravel, Dry, Average Graduation 20 FHWA 2007
Gravel, Dry, Uniformly Graded 10 FHWA 2007
Gravel, Dry, Well Graded 33 FHWA 2007
Gravel, Wet, Average Graduation 10 FHWA 2007
Gravel, Wet, Uniformly Graded 5 FHWA 2007
Gravel, Wet, Well Graded 16 FHWA 2007
Gumbo, Dry 50 FHWA 2007
Gumbo, Wet 67 FHWA 2007
Ingeous Rocks 67 FHWA 2007
Kaolinite, Dry 50 FHWA 2007
Kaolinite, Wet 67 FHWA 2007
Limestone 63 FHWA 2007
Loess, Dry 50 FHWA 2007
Loess, Wet 67 FHWA 2007
Marble 67 FHWA 2007
Marl 67 FHWA 2007
Masonry, Rubble 67 FHWA 2007
Mica 67 FHWA 2007
Pavement, Asphalt 50 FHWA 2007
Pavement, Brick 67 FHWA 2007
Pavement, Concrete 67 FHWA 2007
Peat 33 FHWA 2007
Pumice 67 FHWA 2007
Quartz 67 FHWA 2007
Quartzite 67 FHWA 2007
Rhyolite 67 FHWA 2007
Riprap Rock 72 FHWA 2007
Sand, Dry 11 FHWA 2007
Sand, Wet 5 FHWA 2007
Sandstone 61 FHWA 2007
Schist 67 FHWA 2007
Shale 36 FHWA 2007
Shale 79 FHWA 2007
Siltstone 61 FHWA 2007
Slate 77 FHWA 2007
Talc 67 FHWA 2007
Topsoil 56 FHWA 2007
Tuff 50 FHWA 2007
Andesite 67 FLH (1996)
Asphalt Pavement 49 FLH (1996)
Basalt 64 FLH (1996)
Bentonite 35 FLH (1996)
Breccia 33 FLH (1996)
Brick Pavement 67 FLH (1996)
Calcite-Calcium 67 FLH (1996)
Caliche 16 FLH (1996)
Chalk 49 FLH (1996)
Cinders 33 FLH (1996)
Clay, Damp 67 FLH (1996)
Clay, Dry 49 FLH (1996)
Concrete, Pavement 67 FLH (1996)
Conglomerate 33 FLH (1996)
Decomposed Rock, 25% R. 75% E. 43 FLH (1996)
Decomposed Rock, 50% R. 50% E. 39 FLH (1996)
Decomposed Rock, 75% R. 25% E. 32 FLH (1996)
Diatomaceous Earth 61 FLH (1996)
Diorite 67 FLH (1996)
Dolomite 67 FLH (1996)
Feldspar 67 FLH (1996)
Gabbro 67 FLH (1996)
Gneiss 67 FLH (1996)
Granite 72 FLH (1996)
Gumbo, Dry 49 FLH (1996)
Gumbo, Wet 67 FLH (1996)
Gypsum 72 FLH (1996)
Igneous Rocks 67 FLH (1996)
Kaolinite, Dry 49 FLH (1996)
Kaolinite, Wet 67 FLH (1996)
Limestone 64 FLH (1996)
Loam, Damp Earth 43 FLH (1996)
Loam, Dry Earth 49 FLH (1996)
Loam, Wet, Mud Earth 0 FLH (1996)
Loess, Dry 49 FLH (1996)
Loess, Wet 67 FLH (1996)
Marble 67 FLH (1996)
Marl 67 FLH (1996)
Masonry, Rubble 67 FLH (1996)
Mica 67 FLH (1996)
Peat 33 FLH (1996)
Pumice 67 FLH (1996)
Quartz 67 FLH (1996)
Quartzite 67 FLH (1996)
Rhyolite 67 FLH (1996)
Riprap Rock 72 FLH (1996)
Sand, Dry 11 FLH (1996)
Sand, Wet 5 FLH (1996)
Sandstone 61 FLH (1996)
Schist 67 FLH (1996)
Shale 79 FLH (1996)
Silt 35 FLH (1996)
Slate 79 FLH (1996)
Talc 67 FLH (1996)
Top Soil 56 FLH (1996)
Tuff 49 FLH (1996)
Clay 20 to 40 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Clay. Organic 20 to 40 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Gravelly Clays 20 to 40 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Gravels 10 to 15 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Rocks Metamorphic 30 to 60 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Rocks, Igneous 50 to 80 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Rocks, Sedimentary 40 to 70 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Rocks, Soft 30 to 40 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Sand, Uniform 10 to 15 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Sand, well graded (SW) 10 to 15 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Topsoil/Peat 25 to 45 Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design
Bauxite, Run Of Mine 33 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay and Gravel Dry 41 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay, Compact, Natural Bed 33 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay, Dense, Tough Or Wet 34 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay, Dry 25 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay, Light, Kaolin 30 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Coal, Anthracite 35 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Coal, Bituminous 35 to 40 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Earth, Rock 31 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Gneiss 75 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Granite 50 to 86 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Granite and Porphyry 75 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Gravel, Dry 12 to 98 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Gravel, Wet 10 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Gypsum 50 to 63 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Iron Ore, Hematite 67 to 122 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Iron Ore, Taconite 40 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Kaolin 30 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Limestone 65 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Limestone, Blasted 68 to 75 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Limestone, Marble 68 to 75 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Mud, Dry 21 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Mud, Wet 20 to 21 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Rock, Stone, Crushed 35 to 36 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Rock, Well Blasted 49 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sand and Gravel, Dry 14 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sand and Gravel, Wet 15 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sand, Dry 10 to 16 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sand, Moist 15 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Sandstone 39 to 50 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Shale, Riprap 33 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Slag 24 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Slate 29 to 30 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Stone, Crushed 35 to 36 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Trap Rock 49 to 52 Hartman, H.L., 1982
Clay 30 Hashemite University
Earth, Common 25 Hashemite University
Rock, Blasted 50 Hashemite University
Sand and Gravel, Dry 12 Hashemite University
Dense Clay 20 to 35 Helton (2007)
Gravel 10 to 19 Helton (2007)
Loam 15 to 25 Helton (2007)
Rock, Solid 42 to 61 Helton (2007)
Chalk 30-40 Horner, 1988
Cohesive Soil 20-40 Horner, 1988
Granular Soil 10-15 Horner, 1988
Igneous Rocks 50-80 Horner, 1988
Metamorphic Rocks 30-65 Horner, 1988
Peat 25-45 Horner, 1988
Sedimentary Rocks 40-75 Horner, 1988
Topsoil 25-45 Horner, 1988
Igneous Rocks 50 to 80 Horner, 1988
Metamorphic 30 to 65 Horner, 1988
Clay's 30 Look(2007)
Gravelly Clay's 30 Look(2007)
Gravels 12 Look(2007)
Igneous Rocks 61 Look(2007)
Metamorphic Rocks 43 Look(2007)
Organic Clays 30 Look(2007)
Peat/Topsoil 33 Look(2007)
Rocks, Soft 35 Look(2007)
Sand, Uniform 12 Look(2007)
Sand, Well Graded (SW) 12 Look(2007)
Sedimentary Rocks 54 Look(2007)
Coal 30 to 35 Lopez Jimeno Et Al. 1995
Copper Ore 50 to 60 Lopez Jimeno Et Al. 1995
Iron, Ore 40 to 60 Lopez Jimeno Et Al. 1995
Clay, Boulder 45 Methvin
Clay/Chalk 40 Methvin
Gravel 33 Methvin
Rock 60 Methvin
Sand/Soil 15-20 Methvin
Clay 30 Nunally Sw 1998
Earth, Common 25 Nunally Sw 1998
Rock , Blasted 50 Nunally Sw 1998
Sand and Gravel 12 Nunally Sw 1998
Alluvium 10 to 15 Nz Transport Agency
Dune Sand 0 to 10 Nz Transport Agency
Dolomite 66 Peele (1961)
Gneiss 75 Peele (1961)
Granite and Porphyry 76 Peele (1961)
Greenstone & Trap 81 Peele (1961)
Limestone 75 Peele (1961)
Quartz 76 Peele (1961)
Sandstone 79 Peele (1961)
Slate 84 Peele (1961)
Clay, Dry 35 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Clay, Wet 35 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Earth and Gravel 20 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Earth, Dry 25 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Earth, Wet 25 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Gravel, Dry 12 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Gravel, Wet 14 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Limestone 59 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Rock, Well Blasted 59 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Sand, Dry 15 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Sand, Wet 15 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Shale 41 Peurifoy And Schexnayder (2006)
Clay and Gravel, Dry 40 Projectengineer
Clay and Gravel, Wet 40 Projectengineer
Clay, Dry 40 Projectengineer
Clay, Wet 40 Projectengineer
Coal, Anthracite 35 Projectengineer
Coal, Bituminous 35 Projectengineer
Earth, Loam, Dry 25 Projectengineer
Earth, Loam, Wet 25 Projectengineer
Gravel, Dry 12 Projectengineer
Gravel, Wet 12 Projectengineer
Gypsum 74 Projectengineer
Hardpan 50 Projectengineer
Limestone 67 Projectengineer
Rock, Well Blasted 65 Projectengineer
Sand, Dry 12 Projectengineer
Sand, Wet 12 Projectengineer
Sandstone 54 Projectengineer
Shale and Soft Rock 65 Projectengineer
Slate 65 Projectengineer
Trap Rock 65 Projectengineer
Basalt 60 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clay, Damp 40 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clay, Dry 35 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Dry 15 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Pit Run 8 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Wet 5 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Mud 20 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Sand, Dry 10 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Sand, Wet 5 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Silt 35 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Topsoil 55 Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clay, Heavy (CH) 45 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Clay, Sandy (SC) 20 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Clay, Sandy and Clayey (GW) 15 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Clay, Silty (CL) 30 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Sand, Uniformly Graded (SP) 10 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Sand, Well Graded (SW) 15 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Sandstone, Highly Weathered 30 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Sandstone, Un-weathered 50 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Shale, Unweathered 35 Soil And Rock, U. Of New South Wales
Basalt 50 to 80 Soil Mechanics
Chalk 30 to 50 Soil Mechanics
Clay 20 to 30 Soil Mechanics
Coal 30 to 40 Soil Mechanics
Gneiss 50 to 80 Soil Mechanics
Granite 50 to 80 Soil Mechanics
Gravel 12 to 18 Soil Mechanics
Limestone 50 to 70 Soil Mechanics
Mudstone 30 to 50 Soil Mechanics
Peat 30 to 40 Soil Mechanics
Sand 10 to 15 Soil Mechanics
Sandstone 40 to 70 Soil Mechanics
Shale 30 to 50 Soil Mechanics
Topsoil 30 to 40 Soil Mechanics
Chalk 40-50 Spon's
Clay, Soft 30-40 Spon's
Clay, Stiff 10-20 Spon's
Gravel 20-25 Spon's
Rock, Unweathered 50-60 Spon's
Rock, Weathered 30-40 Spon's
Sand 40-50 Spon's
Vegetable Soil and Loam 25-30 Spon's
Basalt 19 Surface Mining
Bauxite Ore 12 Surface Mining
Caliche 19 Surface Mining
Clay, Light 8 Surface Mining
Coal 19 Surface Mining
Copper Ore 14 Surface Mining
Dolomite 20 Surface Mining
Earth, Dry 8 Surface Mining
Granite 22 Surface Mining
Gravel, Dry 5 Surface Mining
Gypsum 27 Surface Mining
Iron Ore (Hematite) 6 Surface Mining
Iron Ore (Magnetite) 6 Surface Mining
Iron Ore (Taconite) 27 Surface Mining
Limestone 23 Surface Mining
Quartzite 19 Surface Mining
Rock Salt 19 Surface Mining
Sand, Dry 5 Surface Mining
Sandstone 20 Surface Mining
Shale 12 Surface Mining
Slate 11 Surface Mining
Trap Rock 19 Surface Mining
Mudstone, Silt 30 Sweby, G.
Sandstone, Coarse 40 Sweby, G.
Sandstone, Fine 50 Sweby, G.
Sandstone, Shaley 30 Sweby, G.
Shale 20 Sweby, G.
Shale, Carbonaceous 15 Sweby, G.
Shale, Sandy 25 Sweby, G.
Clay 40 Tafe Nsw
Clay + Gravel 18 Tafe Nsw
Clay Loam 30 Tafe Nsw
Gravel ( 6-50mm) 12 Tafe Nsw
Limestone 67 Tafe Nsw
Loam 25 Tafe Nsw
Sand 12 Tafe Nsw
Sandstone 54 Tafe Nsw
Sandy Loam 20 Tafe Nsw
Bedrock 30 Tetra Tech
Clay, Dense 20 to 35 University Of Jordan
Loam 15 to 25 University Of Jordan
Rock, Solid 40 to 70 University Of Jordan
Sand and Gravel 10 to 18 University Of Jordan
Clay and Gravel, Dry 17 University Of Wisconsin
Clay and Gravel, Wet 17 University Of Wisconsin
Clay, Dry 26 University Of Wisconsin
Clay, Wet 32 University Of Wisconsin
Earth, Dry 29 University Of Wisconsin
Earth, Moist 28 University Of Wisconsin
Earth, Wet 23 University Of Wisconsin
Gravel, Dry 17 University Of Wisconsin
Gravel, Wet 13 University Of Wisconsin
Sand and Gravel, Dry 12 University Of Wisconsin
Sand and Gravel, Wet 10 University Of Wisconsin
Sand, Dry 12 University Of Wisconsin
Sand, Wet 13 University Of Wisconsin
Cinders 40 to 55 USAES 1994
Clay, Dry 40 USAES 1994
Clay, Wet 40 USAES 1994
Earth (Loam Silt) Dry 15 to 35 USAES 1994
Earth (Loam Silt) Wet 25 USAES 1994
Gravel, Dry 10 to 15 USAES 1994
Gravel, Wet 10 to 15 USAES 1994
Sand, Dry 10 to 15 USAES 1994
Sand, Wet 10 to 15 USAES 1994
Shale (Soft Rock) 65 USAES 1994
Trap Rock 50 USAES 1994
Clay - Dry 40 Wikiengineer
Clay - Wet 40 Wikiengineer
Clay and Gravel - Dry 40 Wikiengineer
Clay and Gravel - Wet 40 Wikiengineer
Coal, Anthracite 35 Wikiengineer
Coal, Bituminous 35 Wikiengineer
Earth - Dry 25 Wikiengineer
Earth - Wet 25 Wikiengineer
Gravel - Dry 12 Wikiengineer
Gravel - Wet 12 Wikiengineer
Gypsum 74 Wikiengineer
Hardpan 50 Wikiengineer
Limestone 67 Wikiengineer
Rock - Blasted 65 Wikiengineer
Sand - Dry 12 Wikiengineer
Sand - Wet 12 Wikiengineer
Sandstone 54 Wikiengineer
Shale and Soft Rock 65 Wikiengineer
Slate 65 Wikiengineer
Trap Rock 65 Wikiengineer
Basalt 64 Wilkinson (1997)
Chalk 50 Wilkinson (1997)
Clay and Gravel 35 Wilkinson (1997)
Clay, (High Plasticity Index) 40 Wilkinson (1997)
Clay, (Low Plasticity Index) 30 Wilkinson (1997)
Granite 72 Wilkinson (1997)
Gravel 5 Wilkinson (1997)
Limestone 63 Wilkinson (1997)
Sand 5 Wilkinson (1997)
Sand & Gravel 15 Wilkinson (1997)
Sandstone, Cemented 61 Wilkinson (1997)
Sandstone, Porous 60 Wilkinson (1997)
Shales 50 Wilkinson (1997)

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