Spike's Calculators

# Swell and Shrinkage of Excavated Materials List

List of swell and shrink percentages at bottom of page.

Before you start beating the crap out of your excavator/trucking person(s) consider the swell and shrinkage of excavated materials.

Swell and shrinkage factors in construction can be used to estimate the volume of excavated material as in changes from in place to excavated and from in place to compacted state.

There are three terms associated with this:
Bank volume (volume before excavation, material in its natural state)
Loose Volume (volume after excavation, material in disturbed state)
Compacted Volume (volume after compaction/compacted material)

Swell = volume after excavation/ volume before excavation
Shrinkage = volume after compaction/volume before excavation.

Both the loose and compacted volume are calculated from the bank volume.

Example: If you are excavating dry clay it is listed as having a swell of 50% and a shrinkage of -10%.

That means that for every 1 cubic metre/yard of material that you excavate the volume increases by 50%. One cubic metre/yard of clay becomes 1.5 cubic metre/yard as it changes from bank to loose. If you dig it out of the ground and throw it on a pile it loosens up and adds void spaces/air pockets to the material resulting in an increased volume.

If you had to take all this excavated material off site by means of trucking you could be in for quite a surprise if you calculated the volume that had to be removed from the material in its natural state.

If you needed to keep some of the material on site, e.g. use it for backfilling or grading and it needs to be compacted, as you are compacting the material it will reduce the amount of voids, reducing the volume. With the shrinkage percentage you can estimate the amount of material you need to keep.

If you excavated an area of 200 cubic metres/yards of clay and you need to backfill a 50 cubic meter/ yard area, then you know with the swell percentage that the loose pile of material has a volume of 300 cubic metres/yards.
Apply the shrink percentage of -10% to the bank volume.
1 cubic metre/yard of bank clay material after compaction becomes 0.9 cubic metre/yard in volume.
You need a volume of 50 cubic metres/yards of compacted clay material 50/.9 = 55 cubic metres/yards of the bank volume material that you need to keep on site.
Now you can estimate the volume of excavated material that needs to be removed by deducting this 55 of the 200 cubic metres/yards produced by the area you excavated.
200 - 55 = 145 cubic metres/yards. Apply the swell percentage of 50% to this amount and you now know the volume you have to take of site. 145 bank volume + 50% swell = volume to be removed of 218 cubic metres/yards.

MaterialSwell/Bulking % Shrink % Source
Andesite6743(FHWA 2007)
Andesite6733Church (1981)
Ashes, Coal33-50Church (1981)
Basalt6436(FHWA 2007)
Basalt6436Church (1981)
Basalt6035Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Basalt 6436Durham University Community
Breccia3327(FHWA 2007)
Breccia3327Church (1981)
Caliche16-25(FHWA 2007)
Caliche16-25Church (1981)
Chalk5033(FHWA 2007)
Chalk5033Church (1981)
Chalk50-3Durham University Community
Cinders33-10(FHWA 2007)
Cinders33-10Church (1981)
Clay (High Pi)40-11Durham University Community
Clay Damp67-10(FHWA 2007)
Clay, Damp40-10Church (1981)
Clay, Damp40-10Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clay, Dry50-10(FHWA 2007)
Clay, Dry35-10Church (1981)
Clay, Dry35-10Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Clayey Silt or Clay30-10BCFS 1995
Clayey Silt Or Clay 30-9BCFS 1995
Clean sand12-5BCFS 1995
Common Sand25-10BCFS 1995
Concrete, Cinder7233Church (1981)
Concrete, Cyclopean7233Church (1981)
Concrete, Stone7233Church (1981)
Concrete, Stone7233Church (1981)
Conglomerate33-8Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 25%R 75%E43-9(FHWA 2007)
Decomposed Rock 25%R 75%E26-8Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 50%R 50%E38-6(FHWA 2007)
Decomposed Rock 50%R 50%E29-5Church (1981)
Decomposed Rock 75%R 25%E3112(FHWA 2007)
Decomposed Rock 75%R 25%E25-12Church (1981)
Dense Clay33 to 40-25Earth Moving Fundamentals
Diabase6733Church (1981)
Diorite6743(FHWA 2007)
Diorite6733Church (1981)
Dolomite6743(FHWA 2007)
Dolomite6743Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 25%R 75%E2512Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 50%R 50%E29-5Church (1981)
Earth Rock Mix, 75%R 25%E26-8Church (1981)
Earth, Common 25-20Earth Moving Fundamentals
Earth, Loam Damp40-4Church (1981)
Earth, Loam Dry50-12(FHWA 2007)
Earth, Loam Dry35-12Church (1981)
Earth, Loam Wet Mudud0-20Church (1981)
Earth, Loam, Damp43-4(FHWA 2007)
Earth, Loam, Wet, Mud0-20(FHWA 2007)
Feldspar6743(FHWA 2007)
Feldspar6733Church (1981)
Felsite6733Church (1981)
Gabbro6743(FHWA 2007)
Gabbro6733Church (1981)
Gneiss6743(FHWA 2007)
Gneiss6733Church (1981)
Gob, Mining Refuse0-20Church (1981)
Granite7243(FHWA 2007)
Granite7233Church (1981)
Granite7233Durham University Community
Gravel5-3Durham University Community
Gravel, Dry15-7Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Pit Run8-4Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gravel, Wet5-3Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Gumbo, Dry50-10(FHWA 2007)
Gumbo, Dry50-10Church (1981)
Gumbo, Wet67-10(FHWA 2007)
Gumbo, Wet67-10Church (1981)
Hard Pan250BCFS 1995
Hard Pan 250BCFS 1995
Ingeous Rocks6743(FHWA 2007)
Limestone6336(FHWA 2007)
Limestone6336Church (1981)
Limestone6336Durham University Community
Loam and Loamy Sand15 to 20-17Earth Moving Fundamentals
Loam, Earth, Damp40-4Church (1981)
Loam, Earth, Dry35-12Church (1981)
Loam, Earth, Wet, Mud0-20Church (1981)
Loess, Dry50-10(FHWA 2007)
Loess, Dry35-10Church (1981)
Loess, Wet67-10(FHWA 2007)
Loess, Wet40-10Church (1981)
Marble6743(FHWA 2007)
Marble6733Church (1981)
Marl6743(FHWA 2007)
Marl6733Church (1981)
Masonry, Rubble6743(FHWA 2007)
Masonry, Rubble6733Church (1981)
Mud0-20Church (1981)
Mud20-15Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Pavement, Asphalt500(FHWA 2007)
Pavement, Asphalt500Church (1981)
Pavement, Brick6743(FHWA 2007)
Pavement, Brick6733Church (1981)
Pavement, Concrete6743(FHWA 2007)
Pavement, Concrete6733Church (1981)
Pavement, Wood Block7233Church (1981)
Porphyry6733Church (1981)
Quartz6743(FHWA 2007)
Quartz6733Church (1981)
Quartzite6743(FHWA 2007)
Quartzite6733Church (1981)
Rhyolite6743(FHWA 2007)
Rhyolite6733Church (1981)
Riprap Rock7243(FHWA 2007)
Riprap Rock, Average7243Church (1981)
Sand5-12Durham University Community
Sand Or Gravel, Dry, Clean12 to 14-12Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand Or Gravel, Wet, Clean 12 to 16-14Earth Moving Fundamentals
Sand, Clean 12-5BCFS 1995
Sand, Common 25-10BCFS 1995
Sand, Dry11-11(FHWA 2007)
Sand, Dry10-10Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Sand, Wet5-11(FHWA 2007)
Sand, Wet5-10Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Sandstone6134(FHWA 2007)
Sandstone6134Church (1981)
Sandstone (Cemented)6134Durham University Community
Schist6743(FHWA 2007)
Schist6733Church (1981)
Shale7949(FHWA 2007)
Shale36-17(FHWA 2007)
Shale5033Church (1981)
Shales5033Durham University Community
Silt35-20Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Silt 36-17Church (1981)
Siltstone61-11(FHWA 2007)
Siltstone61-11Church (1981)
Slag, Furnace9865Church (1981)
Slag, Sand11-11Church (1981)
Slate7743(FHWA 2007)
Slate7733Church (1981)
Syenite6733Church (1981)
Talc6743(FHWA 2007)
Tale6733Church (1981)
Topsoil56-26(FHWA 2007)
Topsoil56-26Church (1981)
Topsoil55-25Quality Control In Earthwork Operations
Trachyte6733Church (1981)
Trap Rock, Igneous Rocks6733Church (1981)
Trash-50Church (1981)
Tuff5033(FHWA 2007)
Tuff5033Church (1981)